Стыка, Адам. Adam styka картины


Ориенталист Адам Стыка | Artifex.ru

Впереди тебя ждет приключений каскад.Ты готов? Открывайся,Сезам...

Арабская ночь и волшебный Восток чудесным образом сплетаются не только в песне про Аладдина, но и в реалистичных картинах польского художника – ориенталиста Адама Стыка (Adam Styka).

Кажется, сама судьба определила всё, чтобы невидимой рукой вести ещё маленького Адама по творческому пути. Отец подрастающего мастера, живописец Ян Стыка, стал его первым и главным учителем и оказал существенное влияние на будущего художника.

Далее следовали годы учёбы в высшей иезуитской школе – хыровском иезуитском коллегиуме, после чего Адам Стыка продолжил художественное образование в Париже в Академии Изящных искусств (Academiedes Beax-Arts) и прошёл курс обучения в военной школе в Фонтенбло.

 

«Все в этой жизни не случайно», «что ни делается, то к лучшему» — казалось бы, народные шаблоны, старые как мир, но действуют всегда безотказно. Расцвету своего художественного гения Адам Стыка во многом обязан, как бы это странно ни звучало, Первой мировой войне.

Она застала мастера в Париже. Тогда молодой человек оставил в стороне свою тонкую творческую натуру и показал сильный, отважный характер. Адам вступил во французскую армию и за многочисленные победы в сражениях с противником был награждён орденом «За заслуги», получив к тому же французское гражданство.

Шанс к развитию художественного таланта выпал молодому человеку, когда правительство предоставило помощь в осуществлении поездки во французские колонии в Северной Африке. Именно тогда художник заинтересовался ориентализмом как живописным течением, которое «красной нитью» пронзит все его творчество. Адам разработает личный восточный стиль и напишет две серии картин на ближневосточную, в частности, марокканскую тематику. Магическое очарование Марокко, Алжира, Туниса и Египта стало мотивом полотен.

За мастерское изображение атмосферы жаркой Африки, контрастов горячей пустыни и колористики вод Нила, за удивительное чувство цвета и света Адама Стыка называют «Художником Солнца».

Восток – дело тонкое. Этого мастер не боялся и умело использовал восточную утонченность в своих полотнах. Излюбленным сюжетом было изображение счастливых пар.

Улыбка во все 32 зуба светится на смуглых лицах с гордыми арабскими профилями и дарит незабываемое ощущение внутреннего тепла и глубокой симпатии к самобытным и далёким товарищам. Строгие угольно-чёрные глаза мужчин преисполнены жадной страстью и обращены к объектам своего обожания. Все, что может показаться завуалированной похотью, на деле та самая восточная обжигающая любовь, пропитанная самозабвением и верностью святому чувству.

Женщина, как победа - гордость в руках сильного мужчины. Крепкие объятия, в которых находится изящная фигура ‒ наглядное доказательство того, что этот страстный красавец своё никому не отдаст. Она – сама грация, изящество и восточная сказка во плоти. 1000 и 1 ночь рядом с ней станут блаженством, которого всегда слишком мало, и им нельзя насытиться. Блеск золотых звёзд в небе над пустыней не сравнится с её манящей красотой. Тонкий стан и плавность движений привлекают, а горящий из-под тёмных длинных ресниц взгляд пленит и покоряет сердце навсегда.

 

Здесь не найти привычный образ восточной женщины в чёрных закрытых одеждах. Художник, ломая все стереотипы, обнажает смуглое тело и показывает его природную красоту. Платье падает с плеча вовсе не случайно, а будто преднамеренно, невинно оголяя молодую грудь. Девушка вовсе не стыдится своего вида, а с горделивым выражением лица и озорной улыбкой веселится и нежится в объятиях своего принца пустыни. Истинная дочь Востока точно знает, что является хозяйкой собственной судьбы и сердца бедного араба, попавшего в её сети.

Уловить колорит народа не так просто. Ещё сложнее передать это пьянящее чувство при помощи кисти и красок. Однако Адаму Стыка удалось в статичных картинах изобразить бесконечную динамику жизни. Неописуемая любовь к своему делу, вдохновлённость Востоком и жажда к познанию чужой и притягивающей культуры отражаются в каждом полотне гениального мастера.

Адам Стыка не раз выставлялся в самых престижных галереях Франции, официальном Парижском Салоне и Галерее на Елисейских полях. В других странах Европы, Северной и Южной Америке его картины получали множество наград.

И, если Восток – дело тонкое, то в этом ювелирном деле Адам Стыка — искусный мастер.

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Адам Стыка картины, шедевры живописи

по датепо ценепо высотепо длине

все произведенияв наличиипроизведения со скидкой

У края воды. Адам Стыка

холст / масло / 131x162.5см

Набор воды. Адам Стыка

холст / масло / 37.5x45.5см

На берегу Нила. Адам Стыка

холст / масло / 44.5x53см

У русла реки. Адам Стыка

холст / масло / 38x45.8см

Вход в Марракеш. Адам Стыка

холст / масло / 34x42см

Адам Стыка (1890-1959) - польский художник-ориенталист. Сын польского живописца Яна Стыка. Получил художественное образование в Париже в Академии Изящных искусств, прошел обучение в военной школе в Фонтенбло. Совершил поездки в Марокко, Алжир, Тунис и Египет. Художники нашей интернет-галереи могут написать копию любой картины Адама Стыки. Стоимость копии зависит от сложности работы и размеров холста, средний срок на написание одной картины маслом 3-4 недели. Мы не занимаемся печатью копий на холсте с последующей доработкой фактурным гелем или маслом! По окончании работ, можем прислать промежуточные фотографии процесса работы над картиной.

Лучшие картины Картины со скидкой

www.art-spb.ru

WikiZero - Стыка, Адам

Open wikipedia design.

В Википедии есть статьи о других людях с фамилией Стыка. Дата рождения Место рождения Дата смерти Место смерти Подданство Жанр Учёба Стиль Награды
Адам Стыка
польск. Adam Styka
Портрет Адама Стыки. 1910 г.
7 апреля 1890(1890-04-07)
Польша
23 сентября 1959(1959-09-23) (69 лет)
Дойлстаун, штат Пенсильвания, США
Польша, Франция
портрет, жанровые полотна, пейзаж, религиозная тематика
Académie des Beaux-Arts в Париже
ориенталистика

А́дам Сты́ка (польск. Adam Styka; (род. 7 апреля 1890 — 23 сентября 1959, Дойлстаун, штат Пенсильвания, США) — польский художник — ориенталист.

Родился в семье польского живописца Яна Стыка, который стал его первым учителем и оказал значительное влияние на творчество будущего художника.

Окончив высшую иезуитскую школу — хыровский иезуитский коллегиум, Адам Стыка отправился во Францию и продолжил художественное образование в 1908 — 1912 годах в Париже в Академии Изящных искусств (Académie des Beaux-Arts). Кроме того, прошёл курс обучения в военной школе в Фонтенбло.

Начавшаяся первая мировая война застала художника во Париже. Адам Стыка вступил во французскую армию и отличился в сражениях с противником, за что был награждён орденом «За заслуги» и получил французское гражданство.

Одновременно правительство предоставило ему помощь для осуществления поездки во французские колонии в Северной Африке. Во время этих путешествий, Адам заинтересовался ориентализмом и написал ряд картин, создавая совершенно новый цикл полотен на ближневосточную и ориентальную, в частности, марокканскую тематику. За необыкновенное ощущение атмосферы и колористики горячей Африки, мастерское владение цветом и увлечённость этим направлением живописи Адама Стыку называли «Художником Солнца». Мотивы для своих полотен художник находил во время многочисленных поездок в Марокко, Алжир, Тунис и Египет.

Такую же репутацию имели и его произведения на тему освоения американского Дикого Запада.

Адам Стыка был также мастером пейзажа.

Художник ежегодно выставлял свои работы на выставках не только во Франции, но и в других странах Европы и Америки, где его творчество постоянно отмечалось наградами.

В конце жизни Адам Стыка создал ряд картин на религиозную тему. Многие из этих работ украшают церкви Европы и США.

Галерея художника Адам Стыка в настоящее время находится в аргентинском городе Росарио (провинция Санта-Фе).

  • Publishing House: Andrzej and Maria Styka. Styka: The Art & Family Memories (Bilingual). 2005.

www.wikizero.com

Стыка, Адам - WikiVisually

1. Польша – Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country in Central Europe, situated between the Baltic Sea in the north and two mountain ranges in the south. Bordered by Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, the total area of Poland is 312,679 square kilometres, making it the 69th largest country in the world and the 9th largest in Europe. With a population of over 38.5 million people, Poland is the 34th most populous country in the world, the 8th most populous country in Europe, Poland is a unitary state divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, and its capital and largest city is Warsaw. Other metropolises include Kraków, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk and Szczecin, the establishment of a Polish state can be traced back to 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of a territory roughly coextensive with that of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, and in 1569 it cemented a political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin. This union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, Poland regained its independence in 1918 at the end of World War I, reconstituting much of its historical territory as the Second Polish Republic. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany, followed thereafter by invasion by the Soviet Union. More than six million Polish citizens died in the war, after the war, Polands borders were shifted westwards under the terms of the Potsdam Conference. With the backing of the Soviet Union, a communist puppet government was formed, and after a referendum in 1946. During the Revolutions of 1989 Polands Communist government was overthrown and Poland adopted a new constitution establishing itself as a democracy, informally called the Third Polish Republic. Since the early 1990s, when the transition to a primarily market-based economy began, Poland has achieved a high ranking on the Human Development Index. Poland is a country, which was categorised by the World Bank as having a high-income economy. Furthermore, it is visited by approximately 16 million tourists every year, Poland is the eighth largest economy in the European Union and was the 6th fastest growing economy on the continent between 2010 and 2015. According to the Global Peace Index for 2014, Poland is ranked 19th in the list of the safest countries in the world to live in. The origin of the name Poland derives from a West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta River basin of the historic Greater Poland region in the 8th century, the origin of the name Polanie itself derives from the western Slavic word pole. In some foreign languages such as Hungarian, Lithuanian, Persian and Turkish the exonym for Poland is Lechites, historians have postulated that throughout Late Antiquity, many distinct ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland. The most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, the Slavic groups who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD. With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the authority of the Roman Church

2. Пенсильвания – Pennsylvania /ˌpɛnsᵻlˈveɪnjə/, officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle, Pennsylvania is the 33rd largest, the 5th most populous, and the 9th most densely populated of the 50 United States. The states five most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Allentown, Erie, the state capital, and its ninth-largest city, is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of shoreline along Lake Erie and the Delaware Estuary. The state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States, it came into being in 1681 as a result of a land grant to William Penn. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden and it was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12,1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the states largest city of Philadelphia, during the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg, was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washingtons headquarters during the winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west, of a total 46,055 square miles,44,817 square miles are land,490 square miles are inland waters, and 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie. It is the 33rd largest state in the United States, Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Cities include Philadelphia, Reading, Lebanon and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown, Bethlehem, the northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining communities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre, Pittston City, and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest, the state has 5 regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau, Ridge and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain, Piedmont, and the Erie Plain. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the corner, has a humid continental climate. The largest city, Philadelphia, has characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware. Moving toward the interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increase. Western areas of the state, particularly locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, the Tuscarora Nation took up temporary residence in the central portion of Pennsylvania ca. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their lands in America

3. Париж – Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres and a population of 2,229,621 in 2013 within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The aire urbaine de Paris, a measure of area, spans most of the Île-de-France region and has a population of 12,405,426. It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometres and has a population of 7 million persons, the Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France and ranking it as one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The city is also a rail, highway, and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly. Opened in 1900, the subway system, the Paris Métro. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, notably, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 millions passengers in 2015. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the top tourist destinations. The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris, the 80, 000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros, Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has also been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are also pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the areas major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité, this place of land and water trade routes gradually became a town

4. Орден «За заслуги» (Франция) – The National Order of Merit is a French order of merit with membership awarded by the President of the French Republic, founded on 3 December 1963 by President Charles de Gaulle. It comprises about 187,000 members worldwide, the President of the French Republic is the Grand Master of the order and appoints all its members by convention on the advice of the Government of France. The order has a common Chancellor and Chancery with the Legion of Honour, every Prime Minister of France is made a Grand cross of the order after 24 months of service. The medal of the order is a six-armed Maltese asterisk in gilt enamelled blue, the obverse central disc features the head of Marianne, surrounded by the legend République française. The reverse central disc has a set of crossed tricolores, surrounded by the name of the order, the badge is suspended by a laurel wreath. The star is worn by Grand-Croix and Grand Officier respectively, it is a twelve-armed sunburst, the central disc features the head of Marianne, surrounded by the legend République française and the name of the Order, and in turn surrounded by a wreath of laurel. The ribbon for the medal is a blue field. For the grade of Officier and above, a rosette is centered in the field, for the grades of Commandeur, Grand Officier, and Grand-Croix, the rosette is centered bar of silver, silver and gold, and a solid gold respectively

5. Стыка, Ян – Jan Styka was a Polish painter noted for producing large historical, battle-piece, and Christian religious panoramas. He was also illustrator and poet, known also as a great patriotic speaker - his speeches were printed in 1915 under the French title Lame de la Pologne. Next he came back to Lwów and opened there a workshop, here, together with a celebrated Polish historical painter Wojciech Kossak, they created his most famous work in Poland – The Racławice Panorama. Later he travelled to Italy for a time before moving to France where the great art movements at Montmartre and Montparnasse were taking shape. Among Stykas important works is the scene of Saint Peter preaching the Gospel in the Catacombs painted in Paris in 1902. In 1910 Styka painted a portrait of esteemed pianist and Polish statesman, Ignacy Jan Paderewski, previously, near the end of the 19th century, Paderewski had commissioned Styka to paint what would become his most famous work internationally. Originally entitled Golgotha, the became known simply as The Crucifixion. This piece is an enormous panorama standing 195 feet long by 45 feet in height, the Crucifixion has a fascinating history. Upon its commission in 1894, Styka travelled to Jerusalem to prepare sketches, and to Rome, the painting was unveiled in Warsaw to great success on June 22,1897. It was shown in many of the cities of Europe, before making its way to America. The painting was seized when Stykas American partners failed to pay the customs taxes, in 1944 the painting was found, rolled around a telephone pole and badly damaged, having languished in the basement of the Chicago Civic Opera Company for decades. Acquired by American businessman, Hubert Eaton, the painting was restored by Jan Stykas son and it is on display in the Hall of the Crucifixion at Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery in Glendale, California. In 2005–2006 the painting underwent a restoration as part of Forest Lawns centennial celebration. It currently is shown, except on Mondays, on the hour and it features a new, state of the art guided light show and narrated presentation written by biblical scholar Timothy Kirk. Styka died in 1925 and was buried in Rome, however, in 1959 Hubert Eaton arranged with Stykas family for his remains to be brought to the United States for interment in the Hall of The Immortals at Forest Lawn cemetery. Sons Tadeusz Tade Styka and Adam Styka were both painters, Details of the Panorama of the Battle of Racławice at the Wroclaw Municipality website Details of The Crucifixion at the Forest Lawn website Maria Styka family art

6. Хыров – Khyriv is a town in Staryi Sambir Raion, Lviv Oblast of Ukraine. Population,4, 088  It housed a Jesuit college, Zakład Naukowo-Wychowawczy Ojców Jezuitów w Chyrowie, which operated until 1939, khyriv was first mentioned in documents from 1374. At that time it was property of the noble Polish family of Herburt. In 1528 Chyrow, as it is called in Polish, received town rights, the wooden church probably burned during the Great Northern War, and in 1710, it was replaced by a brick one. In 1740, a synagogue was opened here, for over 400 years Chyrow belonged to Przemysl Land, Ruthenian Voivodeship, Kingdom of Poland. It was a town, which belonged to the Ossolinski. In 1772, following the Partitions of Poland, Chyrow was annexed by the Habsburg Empire, in 1872, the town received rail connection with a rail station, and in the 1880s, the Jesuit Collegium was established here. In 1913, the population of the town was 3,400, in late 1918 and early 1919, heavy Polish - Ukrainian fighting took place in the area of Chyrow. The war was won by Poland, and until the 1939 Invasion of Poland, according to the 1921 census, the population of the town was 2,654. In the interbellum period, Chyrow was part of Sambor County, occupied by the Red Army in September 1939, the town now belongs to Ukraine

7. Франция – France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lyon, Lille, Nice, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established. The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural, political, and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is also a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks

8. Фонтенбло – Fontainebleau is a commune in the metropolitan area of Paris, France. It is located 55.5 kilometres south-southeast of the centre of Paris, Fontainebleau is a sub-prefecture of the Seine-et-Marne department, and it is the seat of the arrondissement of Fontainebleau. The commune has the largest land area in the Île-de-France region, Fontainebleau, together with the neighbouring commune of Avon and three other smaller communes, form an urban area of 39,713 inhabitants. This urban area is a satellite of Paris, inhabitants of Fontainebleau are called Bellifontains. Fontainebleau has been recorded in different Latinised forms, such as, Fons Bleaudi, Fons Bliaudi, Fons Blaadi in the 12th and 13th centuries and it became Fons Bellaqueus in the 17th century, which gave rise to the name of the inhabitants as Bellifontains. The name originates as a composite of two words, Fontaine– meaning spring, or fountainhead, followed by a person’s Germanic name Blizwald. This hamlet was endowed with a hunting lodge and a chapel by Louis VII in the middle of the twelfth century. A century later, Louis IX, also called Saint Louis, who held Fontainebleau in high esteem and referred to it as his wilderness, had a country house, philip the Fair was born there in 1268 and died there in 1314. In all, thirty-four sovereigns, from Louis VI, the Fat, to Napoleon III, the connection between the town of Fontainebleau and the French monarchy was reinforced with the transformation of the royal country house into a true royal palace, the Palace of Fontainebleau. On 18 October 1685, Louis XIV signed the Edict of Fontainebleau there, the result was that a large number of Protestants were forced to convert to the Catholic faith, killed, or forced into exile, mainly in the Low Countries, Prussia and in England. The 1762 Treaty of Fontainebleau, an agreement between France and Spain concerning the Louisiana territory in North America, was concluded here. Also, preliminary negotiations, held before the 1763 Treaty of Paris was signed, during the French Revolution, Fontainebleau was temporarily renamed Fontaine-la-Montagne, meaning Fountain by the Mountain. On 20 June 1812, Pope Pius VII arrived at the château of Fontainebleau, after a transfer from Savona, accompanied by his personal physician. In poor health, the Pope was the prisoner of Napoleon, from June 1812 until 23 January 1814, the Pope never left his apartments. According to contemporary sources, the occasion was very moving, the 1814 Treaty of Fontainebleau stripped Napoleon of his powers and sent him into exile on Elba. Until the 19th century, Fontainebleau was a village and a suburb of Avon, later, it developed as an independent residential city. For the 1924 Summer Olympics, the town played host to the portion of the modern pentathlon event. This event took place near a golf course, Fontainebleau also hosted the general staff of the Allied Forces in Central Europe and the land forces command, the air forces command was located nearby at Camp Guynemer

9. Марокко – Morocco, officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a sovereign country located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. Geographically, Morocco is characterized by a mountainous interior, large tracts of desert. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of 446,550 km2 and its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Tetouan, Salé, Fes, Agadir, Meknes, Oujda, Kenitra, a historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, the Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1666. In 1912 Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with a zone in Tangier. Moroccan culture is a blend of Arab, indigenous Berber, Sub-Saharan African, Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara as its Southern Provinces. Morocco annexed the territory in 1975, leading to a war with indigenous forces until a cease-fire in 1991. Peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock, Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy, the king can issue decrees called dahirs which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister, Moroccos predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Tamazight. The Moroccan dialect, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken, Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean, and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa, the full Arabic name al-Mamlakah al-Maghribiyyah translates to Kingdom of the West, although the West in Arabic is الغرب Al-Gharb. The basis of Moroccos English name is Marrakesh, its capital under the Almoravid dynasty, the origin of the name Marrakesh is disputed, but is most likely from the Berber words amur akush or Land of God. The modern Berber name for Marrakesh is Mṛṛakc, in Turkish, Morocco is known as Fas, a name derived from its ancient capital of Fes. The English name Morocco is an anglicisation of the Spanish Marruecos, the area of present-day Morocco has been inhabited since Paleolithic times, sometime between 190,000 and 90,000 BC. During the Upper Paleolithic, the Maghreb was more fertile than it is today, twenty-two thousand years ago, the Aterian was succeeded by the Iberomaurusian culture, which shared similarities with Iberian cultures. Skeletal similarities have been suggested between the Iberomaurusian Mechta-Afalou burials and European Cro-Magnon remains, the Iberomaurusian was succeeded by the Beaker culture in Morocco

10. Алжир – Algeria, officially the Peoples Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast. Its capital and most populous city is Algiers, located in the far north. With an area of 2,381,741 square kilometres, Algeria is the tenth-largest country in the world, the country is a semi-presidential republic consisting of 48 provinces and 1,541 communes. Abdelaziz Bouteflika has been President since 1999, Berbers are the indigenous inhabitants of Algeria. Algeria is a regional and middle power, the North African country supplies large amounts of natural gas to Europe, and energy exports are the backbone of the economy. According to OPEC Algeria has the 16th largest oil reserves in the world, Sonatrach, the national oil company, is the largest company in Africa. Algeria has one of the largest militaries in Africa and the largest defence budget on the continent, most of Algerias weapons are imported from Russia, with whom they are a close ally. Algeria is a member of the African Union, the Arab League, OPEC, the countrys name derives from the city of Algiers. The citys name in turn derives from the Arabic al-Jazāir, a form of the older Jazāir Banī Mazghanna. In the region of Ain Hanech, early remnants of hominid occupation in North Africa were found, neanderthal tool makers produced hand axes in the Levalloisian and Mousterian styles similar to those in the Levant. Algeria was the site of the highest state of development of Middle Paleolithic Flake tool techniques, tools of this era, starting about 30,000 BC, are called Aterian. The earliest blade industries in North Africa are called Iberomaurusian and this industry appears to have spread throughout the coastal regions of the Maghreb between 15,000 and 10,000 BC. Neolithic civilization developed in the Saharan and Mediterranean Maghreb perhaps as early as 11,000 BC or as late as between 6000 and 2000 BC and this life, richly depicted in the Tassili nAjjer paintings, predominated in Algeria until the classical period. The amalgam of peoples of North Africa coalesced eventually into a native population that came to be called Berbers. These settlements served as market towns as well as anchorages, as Carthaginian power grew, its impact on the indigenous population increased dramatically. Berber civilization was already at a stage in which agriculture, manufacturing, trade, by the early 4th century BC, Berbers formed the single largest element of the Carthaginian army. In the Revolt of the Mercenaries, Berber soldiers rebelled from 241 to 238 BC after being unpaid following the defeat of Carthage in the First Punic War. They succeeded in obtaining control of much of Carthages North African territory, the Carthaginian state declined because of successive defeats by the Romans in the Punic Wars

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